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Where Did Lombardi-Era African American Players Live?

Tuesday, February 12, 2019
Imagine moving to a new city for a dream job. The first thing you do is look for a place to live. What do you do if you can’t find one? This is what African American players faced when they moved to Green Bay. Jim Crow laws and racism were most evident in the South, but racism was also a present in the North. For example, a De Pere development barred African Americans and Jewish people from living there in 1948.[1] This was only two years before Bob Mann (the first African American player to start for the team) joined the Packers.

With few places willing to rent to them, African American players were forced to live in small cabins, the YMCA, and hotels. Some even stayed in a room at an extermination business owned by former player Tony Canadeo’s brother.[2] When Herb Adderley came to Green Bay, he lived in the “little shack down by the tracks.” In 1961, Adderley, Davis, and Pitts shared a one-bedroom place on Velp Avenue.[3]

African Americans living in Green Bay faced many of the same challenges whether they played football or not. Housing was hard to find without facing discrimination. For example, in 1959, the Wisconsin State Reformatory hired Joseph Harris, an African American social worker. Joseph met discrimination when attempting to buy a home in Green Bay.[4] He was also subject to race-based harassment. Harris said in a Green Bay Press-Gazette article: “[t]here would be rotten eggs and vegetables on my porch in the morning. Once someone painted ‘nigger go home’ on my door. But a deliveryman washed it off.”[5]

Coach Lombardi did what he could to help ensure decent housing for his players. Things started to change when the Fair Housing Act was passed in 1968. The act prohibits discrimination concerning the sale, rental, and financing of housing based on race, religion, national origin, or sex.[6] While both Lombardi’s help and the Fair Housing Act were steps in the right direction, it was still difficult finding a place to live in a predominantly white community.


Learn more about Civil Rights and Green Bay in Delay of Game: Experiences of African American Players in Titletown open through March 24, 2019,

Lisa Kain
Curator

[1] Tashjian, Victoria. “Area Home to Growing Black Population in 19th Century,” Green Bay Press-Gazette, June 11, 2015.
[2] Christl, Cliff. Packers Heritage Trail: The Town, The Team, The Fans From Lambeau to Lombardi. Stevens Point, Wisconsin: KCI Sports Publishing, 2017.
[3] Adderley, Herb, Dave Robinson, and Royce Boyles. Lombardi’s Left Side. Olathe, Kansas: Ascend Books, 2012.
[4] “Welcome Joe Harris,” Green Bay Press-Gazette, February 21, 1961.
[5] Knaus, Bob. “No Race Problem Here? Homes, Jobs Hard to Find for Negroes in Green Bay,” Green Bay Press-Gazette, June 2, 1963.
[6] “Fair Housing- It’s Your Right,” HUD.GOV, accessed July 2018, https://www.hud.gov/topics/housing_discrimination.

Top 5 Moments at the Museum in 2018

Friday, December 21, 2018
On October 26th, the exact anniversary of Brown County becoming the first county west of Lake Michigan, the county threw a birthday bash at the museum. More than 1,000 people joined us for the festivities. The day was full of family fun, cake, performances, and history. The party concluded with a dazzling laser light show projected on the museum!


2. Estamos Aqui wins National and State Awards 
The American Association for State and Local History (AASLH) awarded the Neville the Award of Merit for Estamos Aquí (“We are Here”). The AASLH Leadership in History Awards is one of the most prestigious recognition for achievement in the preservation and interpretation of state and local history. The exhibit was also awarded the Museum Exhibit Award from the Wisconsin Historical Society. Estamos Aquí invited visitors to connect with the growing Latino communities that have made this region their home. The exhibit, which closed in May 2018, highlighted how these Latino populations are making positive contributions to the cultural, economic, and educational landscape of our region. 





A rare and large Civil War Era flag was conserved specially for display in the exhibit Our Brown County this year. This flag has been at the museum since 1934, and it was clear the 157 year old flag needed some care. There was extensive shredding and areas of loss that made it difficult to exhibit and care for. To exhibit the flag safely, while also considering preservation, the piece needed conservation. A highly trained specialist worked on the flag. They supported the flag by hand stitching nylon tulle around the stripes to stabilize the fabric. You can see it for yourself in person until September 2019!


4. Bob Mann’s Family Joins us for Delay of Game Opening
The family of Packers receiver and first African American to play for the team, Bob Mann, traveled to Green Bay to be at the opening of the exhibit Delay of Game: Experiences of African American Players in Titletown. Recruited in 1950, Mann joined the team just four years after Kenny Washington signed to the Rams in 1946 (One year before Jackie Robinson joined the Brooklyn Dodgers). Mann’s daughters Marjorie and Marilyn, along with his wife Vera, also loaned artifacts for the exhibit. Delay of Game is open through March 10, 2019!




5. Morbid Curiosities
Morbid Curiosities returned in 2018 for its third year. This year 300 guests explored artifacts connected to big moments in world history. A game of Clue in Our Brown County added to the Halloween fun! If you missed it this year make sure to get tickets early for next year’s Morbid Curiosities!


Lisa Kain
Curator

Brown County's 200th Birthday

Wednesday, October 24, 2018
On October 26, 1818 Brown County’s boundary lines became the first to be established west of Lake Michigan. Crawford County was founded on the same day. However, Brown County is considered Wisconsin’s first because “b” comes before “c” in the alphabet. 

Two hundred years ago Brown County was much larger, encompassing almost half of the future state of Wisconsin. Today the county spans 530 sq. miles and is home to more than 260,000 people. Discover more about Brown County's history by visiting our special exhibit "Our Brown County!"

How did Brown County get its name?
Brown County, along with several other municipalities across the country, is named in honor of General Jacob Jennings Brown. General Brown was born to a Quaker family in Pennsylvania in 1775. He moved to New York and served as a Judge and solider in the state militia. During the War of 1812, Brown earned the rank of Major General. For his heroics, he was named Commanding General of the Army by Congress, and served in the government until his death in 1828.



Curator’s Perspective
Over the last 10 months the museum has focused on celebrating this 200 years of history. We opened “Our Brown County” the exhibit. We have participated in parades and events across the county celebrating this particular moment.

It’s a great thing- a bicentennial celebration- but what does it really mean? To me (a curator of history) it means everything. It’s all of these moments in history stacked on top of each other to create the moment we’re living in now. I love learning about the people our streets and schools are named after and the effect they had on the community that is still felt today. I respect that fact that I wouldn’t be living here without the Homestead Act or the Green Bay Packers. Both are different parts of our community’s history but both influence people lives more than they know.

Knowing our history and respecting the work of the people before us allows us to connect on a deeper level to our community and take pride in it. After all, this is the place you’ve chosen to live, work, and play. I invite you think of some of these things and participate in this special moment in Brown County's history.

Lisa Kain
Curator

Five Surprising Facts About Bees

Tuesday, September 25, 2018

Five Surprising Facts About Bees

Bees are being trained to sniff for bombs. 

Researchers at the Los Almos National Laboratory are training honeybees to find bombs. The Stealthy Insect Sensor Project trains the bees like how Pavlov trained dogs. Honeybees are exposed to the smell of bomb ingredients and are then given sugar water as a reward. Researchers say the bees catch on pretty fast, only needing to be exposed a couple of times.

After training, the bees stick out their proboscis when they smell bomb ingredients. This behavior lets researchers know when the bees smell the bomb. 

Bees have traveled to space!

Over 3,000 bees were sent on the April 1984 Challenger flight. They were housed in a special box and adapted perfectly to zero gravity. But they didn’t go to the bathroom. Since bees only excrete outside the hive, they held it in for seven days! A NASA spokesperson said the space hive was “just as clean as a pin.”

Rural farmers in Africa use bee-fences to protect against elephants.

Like farmers in Wisconsin, farmers in Africa deal with crop-raiding wildlife. The Elephants and Bees Project uses African Honeybees to reduce crop damage by elephants. The elephants have a natural instinct to avoid bees so the project works with farmers to create beehive fences. 

The hives are strung together so when an elephant bumps the hives or the string, it releases the bees, driving the elephants away. When testing the hives, they had a success rate of over 80%. The hives also help with crop pollination and provide honey for the community. 

Male bees (drones) have no father but they do have a grandfather.

Male bees (drones) develop from unfertilized eggs. Since no sperm is used to create their egg, they do not have a father. However, they receive their genetic material from their mom, who had a mother and a father. This means they would receive genetic material from their grandfather.  



Honeybees are one of the only species that will die after stinging you once.

A honeybee usually dies after stinging because its stinger has barbs. This does not allow them to yank the stinger back out when they sting a human. As the honeybee tries to pull out the stinger, it breaks its lower abdomen. It leaves the stinger, a string of digestive material, muscles, glands and a venom sac behind. Other bees, like bumblebees and carpenter bees, have smooth stingers. This allows them to sting more than once without dying.


To learn more about bees and how they affect you, visit our new exhibit Bees!

James Peth
Research Technician 


Delay of Game Explores African American History

Friday, August 17, 2018
Bob Mann was the first African American to play in a regular season game for the Packers in 1950 During my summer internship at the Neville, I had the opportunity to work on Delay of Game: Experiences of African American Football Players in Titletown. When first told about the exhibition, I was thrilled to hear of the museum’s plans to explore African American history. But, because Delay of Game centers on the Packers, I worried football would overshadow the stories off the field. Thankfully, I was wrong. Not only did I learn more about the Packers, but also more about the community I grew up in. I found that the African American history of the Packers, and Brown County, reflected wider social histories. 

Packers First African American Player 
Bob Mann was the first African American Packer to play a regular season game. Recruited in 1950, Mann joined the team just four years after Kenny Washington signed to the Rams in 1946 (One year before Jackie Robinson joined the Brooklyn Dodgers). Washington was the first black NFL player since 1933.

Packers and Jim Crow
Into the 1960s the Packers continued to integrate football. The team broke black player restrictions and bypassed Jim Crow hotel rules. While there was still much progress to be made in professional sports, Green Bay was at the forefront of player equality. That does not mean that black players had it easy. During his first trip to the South, Willie Wood was subject to discrimination. He was thrown out of a hotel lobby, and a cab, because they were white only. Before making it to his hotel room, Wood was fuming. The treatment that Wood faced was far too common in the black community.

1961 Green Bay Packers Team





NFL Commissioner Tries to Stop an Interracial Marriage in Green Bay 
Lionel Aldridge, however, faced difficulty in Wisconsin. Aldridge wanted to marry his college girlfriend, Vicky, but had to think twice because she was white. Cookie Gilchrist had been blacklisted from the NFL for his interracial marriage, and Aldridge feared he faced the same fate. NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle visited Green Bay and attempted to stop the marriage. In 1967, the same year as Loving v. Virginia, Aldridge married Vicky.

Through my internship, I gained museum education and knowledge about my hometown. It is important for people to take the time to learn about their community and the people within. Different people are subjected to different experiences; we all must be aware of that. Not everyone shares the same privileges, as Delay of Game shows. Jordy Nelson sums it up well, “… just because I don’t see it, it doesn’t mean that it doesn’t exist.

Noah Mapes
Intern
University of Wisconsin

Civil War Era Flag Returns

Wednesday, April 25, 2018
After months of conservation work this Civil War era flag is ready for exhibit! This important piece of Brown County history is more than 12 feet long and 8 feet high.

Flag Conservation
This flag has been at the museum since 1934. When we identified it for exhibit use last year it was clear the 157 year old flag needed some care. There was extensive shredding and areas of loss that made it difficult to exhibit and care for. To exhibit the flag safely, while also considering preservation, the piece needed conservation. A highly trained specialist worked on the flag. They supported the flag by hand stitching nylon tulle around the stripes to stabilize the fabric.

How Did We Identified the Flag?
This flag is believed to be the last flag to fly over Fort Howard. We were able to confirm this by putting together clues from different sources.
  • First was the writing on the upper left hand star: "From Major Shaylor, Old Fort Howard during the War, 1865."
  • Second, is an excerpt from History of Brown County by Deborah Martin that re-caps an event that took place at the Fort Howard in 1861. Martin mentions Mattie Underwood as the maker of the flag which matches the name in museum records. Martin also mentions Major Shaylor as “the venerable custodian of this ancient stronghold"-the same name on the flag.
  • Third is the style of the flag. The 34 stars represent the 34 states of the Union from 1861 to 1865 under President Abraham Lincoln. This canton design is in the “The Great Star” style. This pattern was used in the 1800s but died out after the Civil War. All these clues provided enough information to confirm this is the Fort Howard flag. 



What is Fort Howard? (Hint: Not a paper company)

The U.S. Army arrived on the shores of the Fox River in August 1816, two years before Brown County became a county. They established Fort Howard, changing the dynamic of the community and influencing what it is today. Fort Howard operated until 1852 when it was de-commissioned. In the following years a volunteer infantry used the site under the care of Major Shaylor. On May 3, 1861 President Lincoln made a speech calling for volunteers to join the Union Army. On May 18th, people of Green Bay and the surrounding areas put together a special event at Fort Howard. It supported Lincoln’s call and included the raising of this impressive flag. During the Civil War soldiers trained at Fort Howard before leaving for the South. Eventually, Chicago & North Western Railroad bought the land and the buildings were officially de-commissioned in 1872.

Ready for Exhibit
After all of this work on the flag and research we’re ready to share the flag with you! This remarkable artifact will be a centerpiece in the upcoming exhibit Our Brown County. Experience it for yourself starting May 29th!

Lisa Kain
Curator

Coming in 2018....

Wednesday, January 17, 2018
2018 is shaping up to be an exciting year at the Neville!  From exhibits to programming we can’t wait for our visitors to share in these exciting events!  Here’s a little preview of the upcoming year:  

#1 Our Brown County, Opens May 29, 2018

Our Brown County is a celebration of 200 years of history focusing on the stories that make Brown County the place we choose to live, work, and play. Explore these stories through 50 artifacts, 50 photographs, 50 people, and 50 places that demonstrate the complex, diverse, and rich history of Brown County.























#2 Delay of Game: Experience of African American Football Players in Titletown
Opens August 11, 2018

It has been one hundred years since the Green Bay Packers were formed but African American players have only been part of the story since 1950. These athletes made an immediate impact on the game, but what happened off the field? In this exhibit, discover how the challenges and contributions of African American players have changed our community.









#3 Holiday Memories of Downtown Green Bay
Opens November 10, 2018

Celebrate the holiday season at the Neville!  See our Snow Babies, charming “Dolls of Christmas Past,” and enchanted forest that once adorned H.C. Prange department store. Holiday Memories returns as a full gallery exhibit this year.  

Other holiday events include the Children Only Shop, and Bruce the Spruce.  Holiday Memories is a wonderful family tradition.



#4 SPARK! 

We’re proud to introduce our newest program series in 2018: SPARK! 

SPARK! is a cultural program for people with early to mid-stage memory loss and their care partners. Programs are designed to keep  participants actively engaged in their communities by providing experiences that stimulate conversations, provide peer support, and inspire creativity through engaging in museum experiences.

You can find more information about SPARK! at the Neville here. 






#5 Morbid Curiosities
, October 2018

Get your tickets early for this in-demand Halloween-time program!   Explore some of morbid and creepy artifacts in our collections, pulled for one night only. Don't miss your chance to get up close and personal with these rarely-seen objects. 

This is not your average museum tour. Come prepared to laugh, play games, experience the exhibits in a new way, and maybe even touch some stuff.

We can't wait to see you in 2018! 

Top 5 Events and Exhibits from 2017

Thursday, December 28, 2017
Our exhibit team was extremely busy in 2017 installing 15 different exhibits and hosting a variety of fun packed events. We couldn’t possibly re-cap all of them so here are five of our favorite exhibits and events from 2017!

 #1 Neon: Darkness Electrified

Neon: Darkness Electrified illuminates the history and explores the science behind the glowing tubes. Most of these neon signs have disappeared from highways and storefronts. A local collector, Jed Schleisner, works diligently to gather and restore these historic pieces of Americana. Neon opened in July and since thousands of guests have explored the exhibit. The exhibit has also been featured in several events like Electrified: Library Summer’s Reader Day, 90s Night, and a Night at the Museum.



 #2 Morbid Curiosities: 99 Ways to Die

Morbid Curiosities returned in 2017 for its second year. This year 300 guests (doubled from last year) explored deadly museum artifacts. A murder mystery and black light art project provided added Halloween fun! If you missed it this year make sure to get tickets early for next year’s Morbid Curiosities!








#3 Artifact Tournament

In September the museum hosted an Artifact Tournament to select an artifact for the upcoming exhibit Our Brown County. Eight artifacts went head to head in this bracket style competition. Over 400 votes were counted via Facebook and the winner was a Vietnam War Flight Suit worn by John Evans (1965-1973). The Flight Suit will be on exhibit in Our Brown County opening May 29, 2018!












#4 Alice in Dairyland
 
This year marked the fourth time Brown County hosted the Alice in Dairyland Finals. It was one of the largest finals events ever and was held at the legendary Lambeau Field. In celebration of this event the exhibit Alice in Dairyland opened in January. During the Finals weekend thirty one of sixty nine Alices visited the exhibit. Among them was Margaret (McGuire) Blott, the first Alice. This exhibit explored the impact Wisconsin agriculture has on our everyday lives, along with Alice, in a one of a kind hands-on experience.






#5 Explorer Wednesday Lava Lamps

Each first Wednesday of the month is Explorer Wednesday. From 5-7pm during Brown County Resident Free Night guest can participate in art projects, science experiments, or guided tours of exhibits. In August, guests made their own Lava Lamps!


There were so many more events and exhibits that helped make 2017 a great year for the Neville. Did we miss your favorite? Comment and let us know what your favorite exhibit/event/program was this past year!


Lisa Kain
Curator

Keeping the Holidays Alive

Thursday, November 09, 2017
Each year the museum puts together holiday displays from our collection of figurines that once decorated the windows at H.C. Prange Co. in downtown Green Bay. Dolls of Christmas Past are displayed in vignettes on our stage and Snow Babies play outside our gift shop. This year is no different but you may notice that we changed some things about our displays compared to years past. We decided not to have our dolls move this year.



As with all our exhibits, when they are completed we inventory and do condition reports before returning the artifacts back to storage. After Holiday Memories last year, we did an extensive condition report of the artifacts. In looking closely we discovered evidence of stress. Piles of rust at the feet of some of the figures are a clue that something was happening internally that we cannot see on the outside.


Rust is caused by corrosion, a natural process where metal is gradually destroyed. Running the dolls causes the metal rods to move resulting in the rust falling from the rods inside the figurines. This leaves the piles you see in the picture above. Running the dolls constantly, even for a two month exhibit, causes strain on the internal mechanics. Piles of rust weren’t the only things we found while performing our condition reports. We also found issues with the clothing and brown marks on the surface of some of the figurines. Both of these things can happen over time.

 The brown marks on this doll are not freckles. Dolls like this were made using a hard plastic. This Plastic breaks down over time and can begin to “sweat” leaving brown marks on the surface of the figurine. The marks are caused by an oily liquid oozing out of the doll. The ooze can also leave a tacky slime behind.

The brown marks on this doll are not freckles. Dolls like this were made using a hard plastic. This Plastic breaks down over time and can begin to “sweat” leaving brown marks on the surface of the figurine. The marks are caused by an oily liquid oozing out of the doll. The ooze can also leave a tacky slime behind. This picture shows one of the issues we found with the felt and textiles of our figurines’ clothing. Over time the fabric has deteriorated, ripped, faded, or become stained.

This picture shows one of the issues we found with the felt and textiles of our figurines’ clothing.  Over time the fabric has deteriorated, ripped, faded, or become stained.

This year, we are decreasing the stress put on our dolls to help ensure that we can display them well into the future.

James Peth
Research Technician

Vietnam Flight Suit Wins the Artifact Tournament

Monday, October 02, 2017
Voting is over and the results are in! The flight suit worn by John Evans during the Vietnam War is the winner. Thank you to everyone for participating in the artifact tournament for the upcoming exhibit Our Brown County.



Our Brown County is a celebration of 200 years of history focusing on the stories that make Brown County the place we choose to live, work, and play. Explore these stories through 50 artifacts, 50 photographs, 50 people, and 50 places that demonstrate the complex, diverse, and rich history of Brown County. Our Brown County opens May 29, 2018!



Vietnam Flight Suit, 1965-1973
The man who wore this flight suit flew high above the terrain of Vietnam, Thailand, and the Philippines between 1965 and 1973. John Evans volunteered for the U.S. Air Force and served as a combat aerial photographer. During the war, Evans was frequently shot at, but luckily was never shot down. After leaving the Air Force he became a lawyer and worked for Brown County and Oconto County. In 2016, Evans lost his battle with lung and brain cancer believed to have been caused by exposure to Agent Orange.

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